SWAZILAND


Quick Facts:

CAPITAL CITY: Mbabane
POPULATION: 1.343 million (2016)
CLIMATE: Tropical to Temperate
LANGUAGE: Swati and English
RELIGION: Christianity and Traditional Swazi
CURRENCY:Swazi Lilangeni

TOURIST ARRIVALS: International tourism, number of arrivals in Swaziland was reported at 873000 in 2015, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. https://tradingeconomics. com/swaziland/international- tourism-number-of-arrivals- wb-data.html

BRIEF HISTORY
BRIEF HISTORY Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini; sometimes called kaNgwane or Eswatini is a sovereign state in Southern Africa. It is neighboured by Mozambique to its northeast and by South Africa to its north, west and south; it is a landlocked country. The country and its people take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified. The Swazi settlers, then known as the Ngwane (or bakaNgwane), before entering Swaziland had been settled on the banks of the Pongola River. Prior to that, they were settled in the area of the Tembe River near present-day Maputo. Continuing conflict with the Ndwandwe people pushed them further north, with Ngwane III establishing his capital at Shiselweni at the foot of the Mhlosheni hills. Under Sobhuza I, the Ngwane people eventually established their capital at Zombodze in the heartland of presentday Swaziland. In this process, they conquered and incorporated the long established clans of the country known to the Swazi as Emakhandzambili. Swaziland derives its name from a later king named Mswati II. KaNgwane, named for Ngwane III, is an alternative name for Swaziland the surname of whose royal house remains Nkhosi Dlamini. Nkhosi literally means “king”. Mswati II was the greatest of the fighting kings of Swaziland, and he greatly extended the area of the country to twice its current size. The Emakhandzambili clans were initially incorporated into the kingdom with wide autonomy, often including grants of special ritual and political status. The extent of their autonomy however was drastically curtailed by Mswati, who attacked and subdued some of them in the 1850s. The kingdom of Swaziland became self Governing on the 6th of September 1968 from British Rule.

HERITAGE
Ngwenya Mines;
The Ngwenya Mine is located on BomvuRidge, northwest of Mbabane and near the north-western border of Swaziland. This mine is considered to be the world’s oldest. The haematite ore deposit was used in the Middle Stone Age to extract red ochre, while in later times the deposit was mined for iron smelting and iron ore export. Several stone age artefacts have been found in the mine during archaeological works in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Their age was established with radiocarbon dating as older than 20,000 years. Later, radiocarbon dating yielded the age of the oldest mining activities as 41,000 to 43,000 years. This would make Ngwenya the oldest known mine. The site was known to Early Man for its deposits of red and specular haematite, used in cosmetics and rituals. Red ochre from here was extracted by the ancestors of the San and used in rock paintings, which are common in Swaziland. By about 400 AD, pastoralist Bantu tribes had arrived from the north. They were familiar with the smelting of iron ore, and traded their iron widely throughout the African continent.

WILDLIFE
Although small in area the country boasts of magnificent wildlife. The country has 107 species of mammals and 507 species of birds.

NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS
1. Hlane National Park
2. Mlawula Nature Reserve

WATER BODIES
1. Komati River
2. Maputo River
3. Mbabane River
4. Mbuluzi River
5. Mzimnene River
6. Polinjane River