SUDAN


Quick Facts:

CAPITAL CITY: Bujumbura
POPULATION: 10.2 million
CLIMATE: Equatorial Climate
LANGUAGE: Kirundi and French
RELIGION: Christianity and Islam
CURRENCY: Burundi Franc

TOURIST ARRIVALS: Burundi International tourism, number of arrivals in Burundi was reported at 131000 in 2015, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. https://tradingeconomics. com/burundi/international- tourism-number-of-arrivals- wb-data.html

BRIEF HISTORY
Sudan was the largest country on the African continent until 2011 when the country was divided into two countries – Sudan and Republic of South Sudan. Sudan is as geographically diverse as it is culturally diverse—in the north, the Nile cuts through the eastern edge of the Sahara; the Nubian Desert; the site of the Ancient Kingdoms of Kush and Meroe; and the land of the Seti. The East and West are mountainous regions, and much of the rest of the country comprises of savannahs typical of much of central sub-Saharan Africa. Sudan also has a rich historical heritage, varied wildlife and coral reefs which attract visitors to the country. If investment takes place and tourism products are developed, travel and tourism could become the second main source of income in the country’s economy. The Red Sea coastline is well known by tourists, especially divers, and with its magnificent sea and deep water the Red Sea which is 1900 km long is one of the most attractive areas in Sudan and the biggest tourist attraction. After King Kashta (“the Kushite”) invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians. At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai. Pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. The Kingdom of Kush is mentioned in the Bible as having saved the Israelites from the wrath of the Assyrians, although disease among the besiegers was the main reason for the failure to take the city.

HERITAGE
Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region;
These five archaeological sites, stretching over more than 60 km in the Nile valley, are testimony to the Napatan (900 to 270 BC) and Meroitic (270 BC to 350 AD) cultures, of the second kingdom of Kush. Tombs, with and without pyramids, temples, living complexes and palaces, are to be found on the site. Since Antiquity, the hill of Gebel Barkal has been strongly associated with religious traditions and folklore. The largest temples are still considered by the local people as sacred places.

Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe;
The Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe, a semi-desert landscape between the Nile and Atbara rivers, was the heartland of the Kingdom of Kush, a major power from the 8th century B.C. to the 4th century A.D. The property consists of the royal city of the Kushite kings at Meroe, near the River Nile, the nearby religious site of Naqa and Musawwarat es Sufra. It was the seat of the rulers who occupied Egypt for close to a century and features, among other vestiges, pyramids, temples and domestic buildings as well as major installations connected to water management. Their vast empire extended from the Mediterranean to the heart of Africa, and the property testifies to the exchange between the art, architectures, religions and languages of both regions.

Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay ;
Mukkawar Island Marine National Park; The property consists of two separate areas: Sanganeb is an isolated, coral reef structure in the central Red Sea and the only atoll, 25 km off the shoreline of Sudan. The second component of the property is made up of Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island, situated 125 km north of Port Sudan. It includes a highly diverse system of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, beaches and islets. The site provides a habitat for populations of seabirds, marine mammals, fish, sharks, turtles and manta rays. Dungonab Bay also has a globally significant population of dugongs.

WILDLIFE
The wildlife of Sudan is composed of its flora and fauna. It has 287 species of mammals and 207 species of birds.

NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS
1. Dinder National Park
2. Radom National Park
3. Suakin Archipelago National Park

WATER BODIES
1. Adda River, Sudan - Angereb River - Atbarah River
2. Bahr al-Arab - Barka River
3. Dinder River
4. Geni River
5. Ibrah River
6. Mareb River (Gash River)
7. Nile River
8. Rahad River
9. Tekezé River - Tiwal River
10. Umbelasha River
11. Wadi Howar - White Nile
12. Yabus River