LIBYA


Quick Facts:

CAPITAL CITY: Tripoli
POPULATION: 6.293 million (2016)
CLIMATE: Desert Climate
LANGUAGE: Arabic
RELIGION: Islam
CURRENCY: Libyan Dinar

TOURIST ARRIVALS: International tourism, number of arrivals in Libya was reported at 34000 in 2008, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. https://tradingeconomics. com/libya/international-tourism- number-of-arrivals-wb-data. html

BRIEF HISTORY
Libya is a country with a rich cultural heritage, numerous archaeological and historical sites, and a long Mediterranean coastline of sandy beaches. In 630 BC, the ancient Greeks colonized Eastern Libya and founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as Cyrenaica. In 525 BC the Persian army of Cambyses II overran Cyrenaica, which for the next two centuries remained under Persian or Egyptian rule. Alexander the Great was greeted by the Greeks when he entered Cyrenaica in 331 BC, and Eastern Libya again fell under the control of the Greeks, this time as part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. After the fall of Carthage the Romans did not immediately occupy Tripolitania (the region around Tripoli), but left it under control of the kings of Numidia, until the coastal cities asked and obtained its protection. Ptolemy Apion, the last Greek ruler, bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which formally annexed the region in 74 BC and joined it to Crete as a Roman province. As part of the Africa Nova province, Tripolitania was prosperous, and reached a golden age in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, when the city of Leptis Magna, home to the Severan dynasty, was at its height. On the Eastern side, Cyrenaica’s first Christian communities were established by the time of the Emperor Claudius but was heavily devastated during the Kitos War and almost depopulated of Greeks and Jews alike, and, although repopulated by Trajan with military colonies,[30] from then started its decline. Libya was early to convert to Nicene Christianity and was the home of Pope Victor I; however, Libya was a hotbed for early heresies such as Arianism and Donatism. The decline of the Roman Empire saw the classical cities fall into ruin, a process hastened by the Vandals’ destructive sweep through North Africa in the 5th century. When the Empire returned (now as East Romans) as part of Justinian's reconquests of the 6th century, efforts TRIPOLI 27 were made to strengthen the old cities, but it was only a last gasp before they collapsed into disuse. Cyrenaica, which had remained an outpost of the Byzantine Empire during the Vandal period, also took on the characteristics of an armed camp. Unpopular Byzantine governors imposed burdensome taxation to meet military costs, while the towns and public services—including the water system—were left to decay. By the beginning of the 7th century, Byzantine control over the region was weak, Berber rebellions were becoming more frequent, and there was little to oppose Muslim invasion.

HERITAGE
Archaeological Site of Cyrene;
A colony of the Greeks of Thera, Cyrene was one of the principal cities in the Hellenic world. It was Romanized and remained a great capital until the earthquake of 365. A thousand years of history is written into its ruins, which have been famous since the 18th century.

Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna;
Leptis Magna was enlarged and embellished by Septimius Severus, who was born there and later became emperor. It was one of the most beautiful cities of the Roman Empire, with its imposing public monuments, harbour, market-place, storehouses, shops and residential districts.

Archaeological Site of Sabratha;
A Phoenician tradingpost that served as an outlet for the products of the African hinterland, Sabratha was part of the short-lived Numidian Kingdom of Massinissa before being Romanized and rebuilt in the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.

Old Town of Ghadamès;
Ghadamès, known as ‘the pearl of the desert’, stands in an oasis. It is one of the oldest pre- Saharan cities and an outstanding example of a traditional settlement. Its domestic architecture is characterized by a vertical division of functions: the ground floor used to store supplies; then another floor for the family, overhanging covered alleys that create what is almost an underground network of passageways; and, at the top, open-air terraces reserved for the women.

Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus;
On the borders of Tassili N’Ajjer in Algeria, also a World Heritage site, this rocky massif has thousands of cave paintings in very different styles, dating from 12,000 B.C. to A.D. 100. They reflect marked changes in the fauna and flora, and also the different ways of life of the populations that succeeded one another in this region of the Sahara.

WILDLIFE
The wildlife of Libya is spread over the Mediterranean coastline and encompasses large areas of the Saharan desert. The protection of wildlife is provided through appropriate legislation in seven national parks, five reserves, 24 protected areas, two wetlands under Ramsar Convention, and also in other areas. The wildlife species recorded in the country are 87 mammals and 338 species of birds.

Libya’s natural national assets are its nearly 2,000 kilometers of coastline and the vast Sahara desert which is the semiarid and arid region to the south. Its hills, ponds and coastal habitats which comprise coral reefs, mangroves, sea grass beds, salt marshes, and mud flats add to its biodiversity. Some of the sites are important for migratory birds.

NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS
1. Abughilan National Park
2. Algharabolli National Park
3. El Naggaza National Park
4. Rajma National Park
5. Sabratha
6. Surman National Park
7. El-Kouf National Park

WATER BODIES
1. 23rd July Lake(Benghazi Lake)
2. Gaberoun
3. Ouau en Namu lakes