ERITREA


Quick Facts:

CAPITAL CITY: Asmara
POPULATION: 5 million (2016)
CLIMATE: Tropical Climate
LANGUAGE: Tigrinya, Arabic
RELIGION: Christianity and Islam
CURRENCY: Eritrean Nakfa

TOURIST ARRIVALS: International tourism, number of arrivals in Eritrea was reported at 107000 in 2011, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. https://tradingeconomics. com/eritrea/international- tourism-number-of-arrivals- wb-data.html

BRIEF HISTORY
During the 3rd and 4th century AD Eritrea was known as Medri Bahri (“sea-land”). Eritrea was part of the kingdom of Axum which spread from Meroe in Sudan right across the Red Sea to Yemen. The capital of Axum was in the highlands of Tigray (now a province in Ethiopia), and the main port was at Adulis which is now called Zula in Eritrea. This Kingdom was based upon trade across the Red Sea and was founded by Semitic people originally from Arabia. Christianity was the predominant faith of Axum introduced through contact with traders throughout the region. The name Eritrea is derived from the ancient Greek name for the Red Sea erythra thalassa, based on the adjective erythros “red”. It was first formally adopted in 1890, with the formation of Italian Eritrea (Colonia Eritrea). The territory became the Eritrea Governorate within Italian East Africa in 1936. Eritrea was annexed by Ethiopia in 1953 (nominally within a federation until 1962) and an Eritrean Liberation Front formed in 1960. Eritrea gained independence following the 1993 referendum, and the name of the new state was defined as State of Eritrea in the 1997 constitution.

HERITAGE
Asmara City;
Located on an highland plateau at the centre of Eritrea, Asmara, a Modernist city of Africa is the capital of the country and is an exceptionally wellp re s e r v e d example of a colonial planned city, which resulted from the subsequent phases of planning between 1893 and 1941, under the Italian colonial occupation. Its urban layout is based mainly on an orthogonal grid which later integrated elements of a radial system. Asmara preserves an unusually intact human scale, featuring eclectic and rationalist built forms, well-defined open spaces, and public and private buildings, including cinemas, shops, banks, religious structures, public and private offices, industrial facilities, and residences. Altogether, Asmara’s urbanscape outstandingly conveys how colonial planning, based on functional and racial segregation principles, was applied and adapted to the local geographical conditions to achieve symbolic meaning and functional requirements. The town has come to be associated with the struggle of the Eritrean people for selfdetermination, which was pursued whilst embracing the tangible, yet exceptional, evidence of their colonial past.

Adulis;
or Aduli (Αδουλίς in Ancient Greek) is an archeological site in the Northern Red Sea of Eritrea, situated about 30 miles south of Massawa in the Gulf of Zula. It was the port of the Kingdom of Aksum, located on the coast of the Red Sea. Adulis Bay is named after the site. It is thought that the modern town of Zula may be the Adulis of the Aksumite epoch, as Zula may reflect the local name for the Ancient Greek Adulis. Matara; Matara (Metera) is an archaeological site in Eritrea. Situated a few kilometers south of Senafe, it was a major city in the D’ mt and Aksumite kingdoms.

WILDLIFE
The wildlife of Eritrea is composed of its flora and fauna. Eritrea has 96 species of mammals and a rich avifauna of 566 species of birds. Populations of lion, leopard, zebra, species of monkey, gazelle, antelope, and elephant continue to thrive, however. The coastal areas are home to many species of turtle, lobster, and shrimp. Plant life includes acacia, cactus, aloe vera, prickly pear, and olive trees. As of 2002, there were at least 112 species of mammals and 138 species of birds throughout the country.

NATIONAL PARKS AND PROTECTED AREAS
1. Gash-Setit
2. Semenawi Bahri National Park

WATER BODIES
1. Tekezé River
2. Mareb River
3. Barka River
4. Bab-el-Mandeb
5. Anseba River
6. Haddas River
7. Obel River
8. Wadi Laba River
9. Comaile River
10. Aligide River
11. Mai Bela